PAL: Perspectives in American Literature - A Research and Reference Guide - An Ongoing Project
© Paul P. Reuben

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Awards, Citations, & Feedback

" Perhaps no other site on the world wide web is more often cross-referenced and "linked to" from the thousands of other literary web pages than the PAL site. ... " - Professor Michael O'Conner, Millikin Univ. (Read the entire major site review at American Literature Web Resources).


Bill Miller, English Teacher, Hemet High School, Hemet, CA: Dear Dr. Reuben, My name is Bill Miller, a former student of yours  - 1972-3, and I have been teaching English at the secondary level since graduating from CSUS.   I stumbled upon your web site looking up resources for teaching  E. A. Poe. Just wanted to thank you for the impact your teaching of Am. Lit has had on my life and career in educ.   I have carried the " Reuben essence" of teaching literature into my own classroom, and I know that my students have gained more from writers' "lessons of the heart"  than from a purely academic analysis of their work.    Many of my past students decided to major in English in college, and a number of them are teaching high school English today, including two who currently are members of my own English dept. today. From a teacher to his mentor,  thanks again!! January 16, 2006             

Janice Cooper, Northern Valley Regional HS, Old Tappan, New Jersey: I am a high school teacher writing an Internet-based lesson on the literary movements of the 1920s. This lesson was developed as a part of a research project on the impact of school libraries on student learning being conducted by the Rutgers University Center for International Scholarship in School Librarianship. The lesson is purely educational and no money will ever be charged for its use. I am writing to request permission to link to your wonderful Website, "PAL: Perspectives in American Literature, Chapter 7: Early Twentieth Century - Index " @ as a resource in the lesson. Thank you for considering my request. November 25, 2005

Scott Andrews, Assistant Professor of English, California State University Northridge: One of my students cited your website that outlines some basic ideas behind Realism. I checked it out to make sure she had used it appropriately and found it to be very useful for students. Your hard work and expertise are appreciated. October 29, 2005

Penny Hartley, Adjunct Instructor, Copiah Lincoln Community College, Wesson, Mississippi: Your site is incredible.  I will teach American Literature for the first time this fall, and I was in a panic until I found your site.  Thank you so much for the providing such a valuable resource. August 17, 2005

Megan Gordon, English Grad. Student, Boston College: I just wanted to write and thank you for putting the time and energy into your PAL site. Some colleagues and I are studying for our comprehensive exams and I've used your site extensively with our American literature segment. Again, I'm continually impressed and thankful for the work you've done to maintain such an accurate, informative, complete site! April 21, 2005

Leslie Mefford, English Teacher, Turlock High School, CA: Hi Dr. Reuben! I just wanted to say hi and tell you that I use PAL all the time in my classes. I never realized how awesome it was until I became a teacher myself. I miss CSUS, and I thank you for teaching me about the Harlem Renaissance!! I still use my books, and I just finished Hurston's novel Jonah's Gourd Vine. BRILLIANT! Leslie (I hope you remember me). March 1, 2005

Ramiro Castelan, 9th Grade Student, Cordova High School, Memphis, Tennessee: Dear Professor Paul P. Reuben, I would just like to thank you for creating the Harlem Renaissance page to your website. We have not met but believe me you were a big help for my project that I had to complete. Your site was a huge help. I am a ninth grader in high school and have been taught to say thank you to those who have helped me. I will recognize you and your Website on my rough draft and my final copy as well. Again thank you. February 25, 2005

Dr. Nancy L. Bausch, Dept. of English, Arizona State University West in Glendale, Arizona: This is a wonderful resource! May I have permission to refer my American Lit. students to this site for Spring 2005 when I am teaching the course from Lauter's Heath Anthology? January 10, 2005

Talke Klara Hoppmann, Fulbright Scholar 2002, Hamburg, Germany: Thank you so much for this website. It is a great reference for a general overview of the literary movements in America. This sort of overall introduction is still lacking in the German way of studying American literature and culture. All the best. September 24, 2004

Mary Beth West, Graduate Student, CSUS: Hi Dr. Reuben, I was in your Gothic Lit. class last semester, and I can't tell you how many times this semester I've sent my high school junior daughter to your PAL site. She's had to read one novel for each historical period she's studied in History class, and your site always had more interesting suggestions than her teacher's list. She was particularly interested in the information about Transcendentalism, because all her teachers for years had used the term and no one had ever defined it for her or really explained to her what it was. (Silly surface-teaching-to-the-test-standards education!) April 25, 2004

Dr. Tyler Tokaryk, English Instructor, Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada: I am preparing a handout for my first-year English students and would like to copy and distibute some of the definitions you provide in "Appendix F: Elements of Poetry" of your Website. Some of the definitions I would like to use "word for word," while others would be edited for brevity, with examples from our course material added. Do I have your permission to do this? I would, of course, credit you and direct students to your website for further information and their own research. Thanks in advance. Your website is excellent. March 14, 2004

Patricia Anex, Assistant Principal and Middle School Language Arts Teacher, Carden Academy, Morgan Hill, California: I was just buzzing by, searching for Cooper information, and found your web site. My grade 8 class is reading Last of the Mohicans, and we were looking for details of Cooper's life. I think your site is great, and I am so enjoying reading it! As a matter of fact, I am typing this note in an attempt to wrest myself from a further exploration of the fascinating details you have presented so well and get back to correcting vocabulary tests! Thank you so much for all you have done here! I look forward to keeping current with your offerings. You are now at the top of my favorites list. With delight, November 7, 2003

Craig Amason, Foundation CEOThe Flannery O'Connor - Andalusia Foundation website is getting quite a few hits from the link on your site. Thanks very much! May 1, 2003

Ms ling Jian-e, English Department, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan, China: Dear Professor, While getting myself ready for a doctorate entrance examination here in China, i came across your fantanstic comprehensive website on American literature.The more I read here, the more I feel like to drop a note of thanks, which is the first in my 3-year-long internet use. Regards. March 11, 2003. Between some luck and some gift, I passed the examination and would be a Ph D student in Nanjing University in Sept. The SARS epidemic should be over by then as the whole country is battling against it with all efforts. May 8, 2003

Diane P., Clear Lake High School, Houston, Texas: Hi, my name is Diane and I'm a high school student in Texas. I just wanted to let you know how wonderful your site is. It's always been so hard to find good sources for my English projects, and usually, I'd have to spend a couple of hours shuffling through the fluff the search engines turned up before I'd find a satisfactory source. Now, I don't have to do that anymore thanks to you and your excellent site. So far, I have used your Transcendentalism, Romanticism, and Sandra Cisneros notes within one week, and they are all superb! I'll be recommending your site to all my friends. On behalf of students everywhere, thank you so much! I know this letter isn't particularly eloquent, but thank you soo much again, you have no idea how great this site is! November 2, 2002

Selina Kuo, Editor, Times International Publishing Group, Singapore: We are currently trying to create a series titled Contemporary American Authors and features, among nine others, Raymond Carver, Toni Morrison, and Joyce Carol Oates. I was wondering if we could have your permission to use some of your website's material in the production of some sample pages (a maximum of four) for an upcoming book fair. Thank you for your time, and I hope to hear from you soon. August 13, 2002

Cathy Hill, Head of Library and Information Science, St Pauls Grammar School, Penrith NSW Australia: This email is to seek permission to download one copy of the information re Lorraine Hansberry on your website to add to our school library collection. This information on your website will be particularly valuable for our Year 12 students studying at HSC/IB level. Thank you. A copy of this email and your reply will be attached to the downloaded website information during processing procedures for inclusion in the Library Collection. May 10, 2002

Blossom Fondo, English Dept., University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon:  Greetings, I just read your article on Naturalism on the web and really enjoyed it. I am a Ph.D student, specialised in post colonial studies. I have to present a seminar paper on aspects of naturalism in the plays of Caribbean writer Derek Walcott. I therefore used the web to carry out the research, I must say your article was rather enligthening. Thanks a lot and God bless you in all. March 14, 2002

Paul Simpson, Links to Literature: Congratulations, your site has been selected to receive the Links to Literature Super Site Award. It is a distinctive mark of achievement meant to supplement the link to your site on Links to Thank you for your excellent web site. February 20, 2002

Alexandra Murphy, Editor (History Online), Cambridge, United Kingdom: Re: LINKING TO YOUR WEB SITE(S): I am writing to ask if you would allow us to provide users of our web sites with a link to your own site. The particular web sites we intend to link from are History Online and ProQuest Learning: History, although we may extend this to other appropriate sites as we develop them. January 29, 2002

 Mark Eaton, Supervisor of Academic Research, AmericanUniversity.Net® Resources Division: Congratulation, Your website, has been selected by AmericanUniversity.Net® Expert Researchers as one of the best educational resources on the World Wide Web. AmericanUniversity.Net® is one of the Internet's leading web-portals for educational/scholarly resources for students and teacher. Since 1998, our expert reviewers have inspected the Internet to select only the best sites to be included in AmericanUniversity.Net® Educational Resources. October 31, 2001

| Top | John Gregory, Editor, Literature Online, Chadwyck-Healey Ltd, Cambridge, UK: I am writing to ask if you would allow us to provide users of our web sites with a link to your own site. The particular web sites we intend to link from are Literature Online and Literature Online for Schools, although we may extend this to other appropriate sites as we develop them. Best regards. May 30, 2001


George Howell, Online, C-SPAN: I am working on C-SPAN's American Writer series web site ( I've put a link to your Hawthorne page which appears on the following "work" page on our site ( I wanted to inform you of the link (I believe we have links to a couple other of your pages, though I'm unsure of which ones at the moment). Thanks! April 2, 2001


Carolyn Weiss, Producer, The Education Network: Congratulations! Your site has been chosen by to be featured in our directory of exceptional educational sites on the Web. Out of more than 110,000 sites reviewed, we found yours to be in the top 2% based on your rich content and its academic relevance. March 20, 2001

| Top | "Teaching Tools: American Literature and the World Wide Web." English Journal ( a publication of the National Council of Teachers of English) 90.2 (Nov 2000): 97-103: This 279-page site by English professor Paul Reuben is difficult to categorize - in a good way. He divides American literature into time periods and beneath each one has links to an introduction to the period as well as to individual authors. Instructors will find the study questions in each section most useful. And surprises abound: when we clicked on the link for e. e. cummings, we found links to images of his paintings, most new to us. February 21, 2001

Congratulations! Your website has been selected as a featured site in Lightspan's StudyWeb® as one of the best educational resources on the Web by our researchers. StudyWeb® is one of the Internet's premier sites for educational resources for students and teachers. Since 1996, our expert reviewers have scoured the Internet to select only the finest sites to be included in StudyWeb's listing of educational links. Thanks -- and again congratulations! Leslie Kenny, Director of Educational Research. January 25, 2001

African American Hotline: Chapter 9: Harlem Renaissance, 1919-1937 Professor Paul Reuben of CSU Stanislaus has put together what is perhaps one of the most comprehensive sites historically and literally. Drawn from his online textbook PAL: Perspectives in American Literature: A Research and Reference Guide, this site features an introduction that reiterates more succinctly and clearly than any other source the varied origins, successes and failures, and consequences of this complicated era. It also provides lists of primary works, selected bibliographies, study questions and related links for many writers and activists, including Gwendolyn Bennet, Arna Bontemps, Sterling A. Brown, Countee Cullen, W.E.B. DuBois, Jessie Redmon Fauset, Rudolph Fischer, Marcus Garvey, Angela Weld Grimke, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson, Nella Larsen, Alain Locke, Claude McKay, Anna Spencer, Wallace Thurman, Jean Toomer, Carl Van Vechten, Eric Walrond, Dorothy West, and Walter White. January 12, 2001


Links2Go "American Literature" Award: The page titled "Pal: Table of Contents" was selected as a Links2Go "Key Resource" in the American Literature topic. Each quarter, Links2Go samples millions of web pages to determine which pages are most heavily cited by web pages authors, such as yourself. The most popular pages are downloaded and automatically categorized by topic. At most 50 of the pages related to a topic are selected as "Key Resources." Out of 50 pages selected as Key Resources for the American Literature topic, your page ranked 6th. Once again, congratulations on your award! July 10, 2000

| Top | Dr. Stanley Bank, Professor & Dept. Chair (retired), English Education, Lehman College, City University of New York: Like many academicians, I had little time during my career to devote to my original interests--early nineteenth-century American literature and Nathaniel Hawthorne (the subject of my dissertation) in particular. Instead, I taught and did research in English education, finally retiring as professor and department chair at Lehman College of the City University of New York. Going to the internet to begin re-exploring Hawthorne studies, I was delighted to find my American Romanticism cited very nicely ( What greater incentive to study could I have? May 28. 2000


Congratulations! I am writing to let you know that your site is currently highlighted in our latest feature article, "Literary Criticism." is the library and reference information portal of the Web, breaking through the information overload to bring the best sites together with insightful editorial in one convenient, user-friendly spot. Russell Drinkard. April 21, 2000


Robyn Spizman and Ken Leebow:Congratulations! We just wanted to let you know that your site is one of the Incredible sites featured in our new book "300 Incredible Things To Learn On The Internet." It's already selling very well on! This book is the newest addition to the popular "300 Incredible" series of books, which has sold over a MILLION copies. So pat yourself on the back! April 13, 2000


Today's ( March 25, 2000 ) Reference Pick of the Day is: PAL: Perspectives in American Literature - A Research and Reference Guide, this searchable site provides outlines and bibliographies of hundreds of authors, themes, and literary movements in the U.S. from colonial days to the present. There are many appendices, including the elements of poetry, drama, and fiction.

PAL: Perspectives in American Literature. Created by Paul P. Reuben of California State University, Stanislaus, PAL is arranged like a textbook and contains chapters on "Early Twentieth Century to 1945," "Late Twentieth Century: 1945 to Present," "American Drama," and "Harlem Renaissance." Each chapter contains an introductory essay, selected bibliographies, and information on authors. March 9, 2000


Congratulations are in order because your site has been selected by Kay Day, the Contributing Editor of Poetry, as a Recommended Site in's Best-of-Web Directory. As part of one of the most comprehensive directories on the Internet today, your site is now one of over 25,000 hand-picked and selected links on over 800 topics in our Best-of-Web Directory. January 18, 2000

| Top | Lynn Hurston, Woodhaven, New York: My name is Lynn and I am a grand-neice of Zora Neale (her younger brother Everette's granddaughter). I would be very happy to receive whatever correspondence regarding Zora that you typically send out. I am thanking you in advance for whatever I receive. I would also like to make clear my appreciation for your interest in and championing of her works. My father (her God-son),and I are eternally grateful that her labor of love is finally receiving recognition that was long overdue, and thankful to people like you who have been a part of that. December 12, 1999


Kent State University Library: At this Web site you will find a research and reference guide to American literature. This work is a carefully organized and knowledgeable compendium of sources covering over three hundred years of writing in America. The site is arranged in periods starting with Colonial Period; to 1700 and concluding with the Contemporary Period (1945 to the Present). African Americans are represented. December 11, 1999

The Corporation for Public Broadcasting - American Collection: This exemplary site proposes and fulfills its goal to present an online resource for topics in American Literature. Students and educators who discover the site in searching for a particular author will find a resource that spans the range of American Literature from early 17th century to the present. Written by Paul P. Reuben, Ph.D., Professor of English at California State University Stanislaus, PAL includes extensive resources for each author. The straightforward academic design of the site is easy to view, navigate and load quickly. Overall Rating: 4 (Excellent) December 10, 1999


College 411: PAL: Perspectives in American Literature. An extremely comprehensive and useful site. PAL outlines American literature according to time period, genre, and author. If you want a general background, it's here. If you want info on individual authors, they're all here. If you want bibliographies on specific topics, they're here. December 2, 1999


the Internet Public Library

To help you find the best information, we've collected and described some of the best starting places for finding online critical writing. PAL: Perspectives in American Literature: A Research and Reference Guide. This detailed website is a guide to finding literary criticism and commentary about American authors. It is arranged by literary periods, and includes introductions and general bibliographies for each period. November 16, 1999


San Antonio College, American Lit Index: Do not miss Professor Paul P. Reuben's splendid Perspectives in American Literature Page. He has provided help on just about every major American author. He is a Professor of English at California State University at Stanislaus. September 28, 1999

George Washington U. English Graduate Student Assn.: Perspectives in American Literature - Simply an amazing resource for the survey of American literature. Paul Reuben has compiled a broad-based site that is constantly developing. Specific authors and movements are addressed in an easy to read and eye-pleasing presentation. September 26, 1999

CSU Sacramento Electronic Reference Desk: PAL:Perspectives in American Literature:A Research and Reference Guide - Paul P. Reuben's excellent 10th edition web guide to the most famous American authors of all historical periods. Each author treatment includes a Photo, Websites featuring the Author, Societies, Achievements, Selected Bibliography, A Brief Biography, and Study Questions. September 16, 1999 

Univ. of Miami, Richter Library, Florida: The Harlem Renaissance. Bibliography of writers associated with the Harlem Renaissance. Each profile has a brief assessment of the writer; a list of primary works divided by genre, and a list of works about the writer. Sites also includes a Harlem Renaissance timeline. "Chapter 9: Harlem Renaissance, 1919-1937" in PAL: Perspectives in American Literature: A Research and Reference Guide. Paul P. Reuben, Department of English, California State University Stanislaus. August 20, 1999


Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison - Internet Scout Project: The considerable virtue of this site as a learning resource lies mainly in Reuben's online project entitled PAL: Perspectives in American Literature. This review of American literary history offers primary and secondary bibliographies for the major periods and figures of American Literature. In addition, Reuben gives brief but pointed discussions along with study questions of key concepts and figures. The appendix includes resources for research, an MLA style guide, a bibliography for the elements of poetry, fiction, and drama, and other bibliographies for topics such as Minorities and Women Studies, The Frontier in American Literature, and Film Criticism and American Literature. The site also features useful links to specific subject sites in American Literature and good online sources for literary texts. Note: anyone studying for a major test in American Literature, whether a standardized subject test or an advanced degree examination, should find this site particularly helpful. August 10, 1999

Webivore Knowledge Systems values your web site and has included it in our collection of educational web pages. This collection is an index of the best web sites found and reviewed by our content experts and editors to help students and educators find accurate and useful information on the web. Thank you for your time and input and your web site! June 23, 1999

| Top | Dr. Donna Campbell, Gonzaga Univ., Washington: I just wanted to compliment you on your American Transcendentalism page; it's terrific! I'm revising my much shorter page on the subject and am pointing people to yours early in the page. Hope you don't mind--several of the pages at my timeline/movements/authors site link to yours, and I've recommended your PAL site to people who've written in with questions. Thanks for your good work and for linking to the Howells Society and Wharton Society sites. June 15, 1999

Links2Go "Writings" Award: The page titled "Early 19th C.: American Transcendentalism", at, was selected as a Links2Go "Key Resource" in the Writings topic, at Each quarter, Links2Go samples millions of web pages to determine which pages are most heavily cited by web pages authors, such as yourself. The most popular pages are downloaded and automatically categorized by topic. At most 50 of the pages related to a topic are selected as "Key Resources." Out of 50 pages selected as Key Resources for the Writings topic, your page ranked 17th. Once again, congratulations on your award! May 7, 1999


We are pleased to inform you that your website is included in - the first portal focused on books, writing, and related websites. Your site may be found under the category path - Fiction:Regions:American and British:American. April 23, 1999

Literary History Site (Top Pick): A major web site for research in American literature, PAL: Perspectives in American Literature, is at The author is Paul P. Reuben, of the Department of English, California State University Stanislaus. Dr. Reuben has assembled information on over 150 figures from American literature, from Anne Bradstreet to contemporary authors and covering all the major writers. Digging into his data you'll find links to the notable web sites (annotated to explain the content of the site). There are quick summaries of major themes and issues in the study of each writer and a brief bibliography. Perhaps the most valuable contribution is the list of thought-provoking discussion questions on each author that could serve as a stimulus for a research paper, class discussion, or book group discussion. PAL is an excellent site for teachers, students, or book group participants interested in any major figure or movement in American literature. Dr. Reuben is demonstrating how truly useful the web may someday be for literary research. April 5, 1999

| Top | Peter Stoddard: I am descended from Solomon Stoddard (grandfather of Jonathan Edwards) and a casual scholar of the subject period covered in your "Chapter 1". I find much modern writing about the era to be incredibly dry and tedious, despite my keen familial interest in the subject matter. By contrast, your presentation is clear and direct. Thanks for such a readable "primer". 3/6/99


P. D'Amico, Open Project Directory Literature Editor: This is to inform you that the website: PAL: Perspectives in American Literature has been designated a Cool Site in the Netscape Open Directory Arts: Humanities: Literature: American Lit category. 1/2/99

Dr. Ann Woodlief, English, Virginia Commonwealth Univ.: I'd like to use your wonderful resources on Transcendentalism for my graduate seminar. I hope you don't mind if I changed the format of your intro and bib a bit (all the good information is there--I just wanted the format to be more consistent with my other materials.) 12/29/98

The December 4, 1998 Chronicle of Higher Education, Page 27 - Information Technology Resources: LITERATURE. "PAL: Perspectives in American Literature: A Research and Reference Guide" is the 11th edition of an online project that features images and bibliographical and biographical information on American writers from Anne Bradstreet and Cotton Mather to Langston Hughes and Kurt Vonnegut. The guide offers links, study questions, and more. The site was created by Paul P. Reuben, a professor of English at California State University's Stanislaus campus: 

Dr. Ellyn, DePaul University, English Department, Chicago: I am writing up some of your sites for Britannica's Online Guide. Congrats. on a very useful internet resource. 8/2/98

Dakin Williams: I am Dakin Williams, the brother of your subject Tennessee Williams and the last of his remaining blood relatives. I appreciate the work you have put in to your site providing insight and resources for those who would research the life of my brother. He was the greatest playwright of the millennium and deserves to be studied every bit as well as William Shakespeare. I have instructed my web site administrator to provide a link to your site from my own website 2/13/98

Penny "Bradstreet" Fort: Thank you for including my ancestor Anne Bradstreet in your work. It is wonderful for the family to see that she is becoming recognized for the important role that she played in our nation's literature and history. We Bradstreet women have always known that she was something special. Thank you again. 6/13/97

Dr. Jill, Rollins College, Florida: Dear Paul, Remember me? New to the Web, self-promoting Jill? Anyway, I find you invaluable as an Americanist on the Web--everywhere I want to go, you're there. Anyway, again, thanks for all of your excellent pages. Best, Jill


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